Cryptography Research, the California company that announced the discovery of differential power analysis around late 1997, have picked up a swag of patents covering defences against DPA. One can't read too much into the event itself, as presumably they filed all these a long time ago, way back when, and once filed you just have to stay the distance. It's what companies do, over that side, and if you didn't predict it, you were naive (I didn't, and I was).
What is more significant is the changed market place for smart cards. The Europeans dominated this field due to their institutional structure. Big contracts from large telcos and banks lead to lots of support, all things that were lacking in the fragmented market in the US. Yet the Europeans kept their secrets too close to the chest, and now they are paying for the vulnerability.
CR managed to discover and publish a lot of the stuff that the Europeans thought they had secretly to themselves. Now CR has patented it. What a spectacular transfer of rights - even if the European labs can prove they invented it first (I've seen some confidential stuff on this from my smart card days) because they kept it secret, they lose it. Secrets don't enjoy any special protection.
Security by obscurity loses in more ways than one. What's more, royalties and damages may be due, just like in the Polaroid film case. When both sides had the secret, it didn't matter who invented it, it was who patented it first that won.
We will probably see the switch of a lot more smart card work across to CR's labs, and a commensurate rush by the European labs to patent everything they have left. Just a speculative guess, mind. With those patents in hand, CR's future looks bright, although whether this will prove to be drain or a boon to the smart card world remains to be seen.
Technology Prevents DPA Attacks to Combat Fraud and Piracy
SAN FRANCISCO, April 19 /PRNewswire/ -- Cryptography Research, Inc., a leader in advanced security research and engineering, today announced it has been granted several broad patents on technology that reduces fraud and piracy by protecting smart cards and other systems from Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attacks. The company developed the technology to help cryptographic device manufacturers, systems integrators, and smart card issuers develop secure, DPA-resistant implementations for use in financial, pay television, mass transit, secure identification and wireless industries.
Differential Power Analysis involves measuring the electrical power consumption of smart cards and other cryptographic devices. Statistical methods are then used to extract cryptographic keys and other secrets.
Vulnerable devices are at risk for compromises including fraud, cloning, impersonation, counterfeiting, and piracy. Although DPA attacks typically require technical skill to implement, they can be repeated with a few thousand dollars of standard equipment, and can often break a device in a few minutes. DPA and related attacks were originally discovered at Cryptography Research in the 1990s.
"We are proud to have our work recognized by the United State Patent and Trademark Office," said Paul Kocher, president of Cryptography Research. "As a research-focused company, we rely on patents to help us commercialize our results and make our ongoing R&D efforts possible."
The Cryptography Research DPA patents broadly cover countermeasures to DPA attacks, and include:
-- U.S. Patent #6,654,884: Hardware-level mitigation and DPA countermeasures for cryptographic devices;
-- U.S. Patent #6,539,092: Leak-resistant cryptographic indexed key update;
-- U.S. Patent #6,510,518: Balanced cryptographic computational method and apparatus for leak minimization in smartcards and other cryptosystems;
-- U.S. Patent #6,381,699: Leak-resistant cryptographic method and apparatus;
-- U.S. Patent #6,327,661: Using unpredictable information to minimize leakage from smartcards and other cryptosystems;
-- U.S. Patent #6,304,658: Leak-resistant cryptographic method and apparatus;
-- U.S. Patent #6,298,442: Secure modular exponentiation with leak minimization for smartcards and other cryptosystems; and
-- U.S. Patent #6,278,783: DES and other cryptographic, processes with leak minimization for smartcards and other cryptosystems.
Other Cryptography Research patents are issued and pending in the United States, Europe, Japan, Canada and other countries.
According to the Smart Card Alliance, an industry trade group, the United States became the third largest market for microprocessor smart cards in 2003, and more than 70 million smart cards shipped to the United States and Canada. The Card Industry Directory reported over 1.9 billion worldwide smart card shipments in 2003.
About Cryptography Research, Inc.
Cryptography Research, Inc. provides consulting services and technology to solve complex security problems. In addition to security evaluation and applied engineering work, CRI is actively involved in long-term research in areas including tamper resistance, content protection, network security, and financial services. The company also produces the DPA Workstation(TM) to help qualified organizations analyze DPA-related security vulnerabilities and improve their use of licensed DPA countermeasures. This year, security systems designed by Cryptography Research engineers will protect more than $60 billion of commerce for wireless, telecommunications, financial, digital
television, and Internet industries. For additional information or to arrange a consultation with a member of the technical staff, please contact Jennifer Craft at 415-397-0123 or visit http://www.cryptography.com.